In many CKD patients, previous kidney disease or other underlying diseases are already known.

A significant number present with CKD of unknown cause.

Sexual dysfunction is very common in both men and women with CKD.

Similarly, after a kidney transplant, the levels may not go back to normal as the transplanted kidney may not work 100%. The toxins show various cytotoxic activities in the serum and have different molecular weights, and some of them are bound to other proteins, primarily to albumin.

Such toxic protein-bound substances are receiving the attention of scientists who are interested in improving the standard chronic dialysis procedures used today.

In CKD numerous uremic toxins accumulate in the blood.

Even when ESKD (largely synonymous with CKD5) is treated with dialysis, the toxin levels do not go back to normal as dialysis is not that efficient.

Whereas large numbers of standard-essential patents are often taken for granted, this study focuses on the process by which companies obtain such patents.

Analyzing original data of a large standardization process, we demonstrate how many companies use a strategy we call “just-in-time patenting”: They apply for patents of low technical merit just before a standardization meeting, and then send the patents’ inventors to the meeting to negotiate this patented technology into the standard.

It reflects one aspect of kidney function: how efficiently the glomeruli (filtering units) work.

But as they make up is less than 30 ml/min; or decreasing by more than 3 ml/min/year); and may be useful at an earlier stage (e.g.

Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans are also used in kidney imaging; with both MAG3 and DMSA being used chelated with the radioactive element technetium-99.

for 3 months are classified as having chronic kidney disease, irrespective of the presence or absence of kidney damage.

Modern technical standards often include large numbers of patented technologies that are required to implement those standards.